Long Start

Why Gauge?

The communication breakdowns between Developers and Business Stakeholders is a common risk of software development. Gauge is an advanced automation tool that allows requirements to be written in a way that will be understood by all roles in a project and help bridge the gap.

Some of the key features of Gauge that make it stand unique include:

  • A rich markup based on markdown
  • Simple, Flexible and Rich Syntax
  • Business Language Tests : Supports the concept of executable documentation.
  • Consistent Cross Platform/Language Support for writing test code. Currently supported languages.
  • Open Source, so it could be shared freely and improved by others as well.
  • A modular architecture with Plugins support.
  • Extensible through Plugins and Hackable.
  • Supports External Data Sources.
  • Helps you create Maintainable and Understandable test suites.
  • IDE Support.

Gauge Terminologies

Specifications (spec)

They are business layer test cases which can also act as your feature documentation. They are written in the business language. Typically a spec or specification describe a particular feature of the application under test.

  • They are written in a .spec file. Gauge also supports .md file format.
  • The Markup for a Specification file is based on markdown syntax.

Example

Specification

Spec

Specification Heading

A Spec must begins with a spec heading and a single specification can contain only one spec heading.

It is written in <H1> syntax of markdown. This can be in two forms:

Spec Heading
============

or

# Spec Heading
  • Every spec must contain one or more Scenarios.
  • Every spec can be marked with labels using Tags.

Scenarios

Each scenario represents a single flow in a particular specification. A specification must contain at least one scenario.

A scenario starts after a scenario heading or a scenario name. The scenario heading is written in markdown <H2> syntax. This can be written in 2 ways:

Scenario heading
----------------

or

## Scenario heading
  • A scenario contains one or more steps under it.
  • A scenario can be tagged using tags.

Example

Configuration
=============

The Admin user should be able to switch permissions for other users.

Admin Login
-----------
* User must login as "admin"
* Navigate to the configuration page
* Change permissions for user "john" to "admin"
* User "john" should have admin permissions

Steps

Steps are the executable components of your specification. They are written as markdown unordered list items (bulleted points).

They are written inside a specification as

Every step has an underlying code implementation for the programming language used. This is executed when the steps inside a spec are executed.

See how to write Step implementations for different languages.

Example

* Login into my app
* Search for "gauge"
* Search for "gauge-java"

The values written in quotes are parameters which are passed into the underlying step implementation as a language specific structure.

Note: The following characters are reserved for parameters, these cannot be used in step text.

  • "
  • <
  • >

Parameters

Steps can be defined to take values as parameters so that they can be re-used with different parameter values.

* Check "product 1" exists
* Check "product 2" exists

The underlying step implementation in code must also take the same number of parameters as passed from the step.

The parameters passed into a step are of the following types:

Simple parameters

They are values passed into the steps in double quotes.

* Create a “gauge-java” project
* Write “100” line specification

Note: Renaming the parameter will not rename the usages inside the method. By design, the renamed parameter is considered as a new parameter. Therefore the usage of the old parameter(if any) has to be fixed manually to resolve the corresponding compilation issue.

Dynamic Parameters

Dynamic parameters are used as placeholder for values.

Syntax: <dynamic_param>.

Dynamic parameters are primarily used when referring to a table column value in Data driven execution, or while passing values to Concepts.

Example
example.cpt
# A sample concept that takes a <parameter>

* And used the <parameter> in a step.

The above concept can be invoked and a value can be passed to the concept against <parameter> at the time of invocation.

* A sample concept that takes a "dummy value"

Note

Refer to this Example for illustration on how table cell values can be referred using dynamic parameters.

Table Parameters

Table Parameters can be used in two ways

  • When a scenario or multiple scenarios in a specification are to be executed for multiple sets of data then Data driven execution can be used.
  • Tables or inline tables can be passed to steps as parameters.

Data Table values in inline tables

Dynamic values from the data table can also be referred in table parameters passed into steps

Example
Create projects
===============

|id| name |
|--|------|
|1 | john |
|2 | mike |

First scenario
--------------

* Create the following projects
     |project name| username |
     |------------|----------|
     | Gauge java | <name>   |
     | Gauge ruby | <name>   |

In the above example the table parameter uses a dynamic value from the data table.

Special Parameters

Special parameters provide the ability to pass larger and richer data into the steps as parameters.

  • They are entered in angular brackets - <> in the step.
  • They contain 2 parts separated by a colon :
<prefix:value>

Prefix : This defines the type of special parameter. e.g. file, table.

Value : This defines the value for the type of special parameter.

There are two types of special parameters:

  1. File
  2. CSV

Special Parameter: File

These are used to read files and pass the file content as a string parameter to the underlying steps.

Syntax : <file:[value]> where [value] is the path to the file.

Note

[value] can be an absolute or relative path. Relative paths are resolved relative to GAUGE_PROJECT_ROOT.

* Verify email text is <file:email.txt>
* Check if <file:/work/content.txt> is visible

The path to the file can be the relative path from the Gauge project or an absolute path to the file.

Special Parameter: CSV

Tables are used to pass table value into steps read from an external CSV file. The parameter text in the step contains a prefix table and the path to the csv file.

Syntax : <table:[value]> where [value] is the path to the csv file.

Note

[value] can be an absolute or relative path. Relative paths are resolved relative to GAUGE_PROJECT_ROOT.

* Step that takes a table <table:data.csv>
* Check if the following users exist <table:/Users/john/work/users.csv>

Sample csv file:

Id,Name
1,The Way to Go On
2,Ivo Jay Balbaert

The first row is considered as table header. Following rows are considered as the row values.

Tags

Tags are used to associate labels with specifications or scenarios. Tags are written as comma separated values in the spec with a prefix Tags: .

  • Both scenarios and specifications can be separately tagged
  • Only one set of tags can be added to a single specification or scenario.

They help in filtering specs or scenarios based on tags used.

Example

Both the Login specification and the scenario Successful login scenario have tags in the below example.

Login specification
===================
 Tags: login, admin, user-abc


Successful login scenario
-------------------------
 Tags: login-success, admin

A tag applied to a spec automatically applies to a scenario.

Concepts

Concepts provide the ability to combine re-usable logical groups of steps into a single unit. It provides a higher level abstraction of a business intent by combining steps.

They are defined in .cpt format files in the specs directory in the project. They can be inside nested directories inside the specs directory.

  • Concepts are used inside spec just like any other step. The appropriate parameters are passed to them.
  • On execution all the steps under the concepts are executed in the defined order.

Note: A single .cpt file can contain multiple concept definitions.

Defining a concept

Create a .cpt file under specs directory with the concept definition.

The concept definition contains the 2 parts:

Concept header

The concept header defines the name of the concept and the parameters that it takes. It is written in the markdown ``H1`` format.

  • All parameters are defined in angular brackets < >.
  • A concept definition must have a concept header.
# Concept name with <param0> and <param1>

Steps

The concept header is followed by the steps that are used inside the concept. They are defined in the usual steps structure.

  • All the parameters used from the concept header will be in < > brackets.
  • Fixed static parameter values are written in quotes " ".
  • Other concepts can also be called inside the concept definition.
# Login as user <username> and create project <project_name>

* Login as user <username> and "password"
* Navigate to project page
* Create a project <project_name>

In the above example:

  • The first line is the concept header
  • The following 3 steps are abstracted into the concept

Contexts

Contexts or Context steps are steps defined in a spec before any scenario.

They allow you to specify a set of conditions that are necessary for executing scenarios in a spec. Context steps can be used to set up data before running scenarios. They can also perform a setup or tear down function.

  • Any regular steps can be used as a context.
  • Contexts are executed before every scenario in the spec.
Delete project
==============
These are context steps

* User is logged in as "mike"
* Navigate to the project page

Delete single project
---------------------
* Delete the "example" project
* Ensure "example" project has been deleted

Delete multiple projects
------------------------
* Delete all the projects in the list
* Ensure project list is empty

In the above example spec the context steps are User is logged in as Mike and Navigate to the project page, they are defined before any scenario.

These steps are executed before the execution of each scenario Delete single project and Delete multiple projects.

The spec execution flow would be:

  1. Context steps execution
  2. Delete single project scenario execution
  3. Context steps execution
  4. Delete multiple projects scenario execution

Tear Down Steps

Tear Down Steps are the steps defined in a spec after the last scenario. They allow you to specify a set of clean-up steps after every execution of scenario in a spec. They are used to perform a tear down function.

  • Any regular steps can be used as a tear down step.
  • Tear down steps are executed after every scenario in the spec.

Syntax

___: Three or more consecutive underscores will indicate the start of tear down. Steps that are written in tear down(after three or more consecutive underscores) will be considered as tear down steps.

___
* Tear down step 1
* Tear down step 2
* Tear down step 3

Example

Delete project
==============

* Sign up for user "mike"
* Log in as "mike"

Delete single project
---------------------
* Delete the "example" project
* Ensure "example" project has been deleted

Delete multiple projects
------------------------
* Delete all the projects in the list
* Ensure project list is empty

____________________
These are teardown steps

* Logout user "mike"
* Delete user "mike"

In the above example spec, the tear down steps are Logout user "mike" and Delete user "mike", they are defined after three or more consecutive underscores.

The spec execution flow would be:

  1. Context steps execution
  2. Delete single project scenario execution
  3. Tear down steps execution
  4. Context steps execution
  5. Delete multiple projects scenario execution
  6. Tear down steps execution